The project of state formation in the region is still ongoing. In its contemporary history, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the region has undergone several major upheavals, with local and international wars a continual feature from the beginning of the 20th century until the present. Yet the present day conflicts differ from historical wars is the greater mobility of people and conflicts, particularly since the invasion of Iraq in 2003. This mobility has accelerated the transformation of the social structure of the Mashreq. This theme will focus on people's movements internally and externally, the social structure of local communities and their external linkages, and the nurturing social environment (hadina shaʿbiyya) that those communities foster. The goal of this theme is to understand how wars and the evolving nature of state power are transforming and creating new social relationships.